(TEXAS, Ariz.) JUST IN: At least 10-cities declared themselves as ‘ Sanctuary Cities Against Abortion’s ‘ ordinances including the ones passed by Waskom and Joaquin, define abortion as “murder with malice aforethought,” ban emergency contraception such as Plan B, declare organisations like Planned Parenthood as criminal and fine medical providers who perform abortions #AceNewsDesk reports

#AceNewsReport – Jan.26: When most Americans think of sanctuary cities, they think of predominately liberal jurisdictions that have vowed to protect undocumented immigrants from what they view as overzealous federal immigration policies: But in the last year or so, conservative cities and counties around the nation have co-opted the term, declaring themselves sanctuaries from attempts at gun control – – – and now, abortions.

Small towns in Texas are declaring themselves ‘sanctuary cities for the unborn’

Abilene is one of about a dozen towns in Texas that is considering adopting an ordinance to declare itself a “sanctuary city for the unborn.”

Ten towns in Texas have voted to declare themselves “sanctuary cities for the unborn,” with most adopting ordinances that claim to outlaw abortion within city limits: At least 13 cities are considering such ordinances, and three — Mineral Wells, Omaha and Jacksboro — have already voted against them: Most of the towns that have enacted the anti-abortion ordinances have populations of less than 6,000 people. None have abortion clinics; The town of Waskom, with a population of 1,900, became the first “sanctuary city for the unborn” last June, according to the anti-abortion movement leading the charge across Texas………………The town of Gary, with a population of 300, became the latest one last week, joining others like Naples, Joaquin, Gilmer and Rusk.

The language of the ordinances varies from city to city; Some, including the ones passed by Waskom and Joaquin, define abortion as “murder with malice aforethought,” ban emergency contraception such as Plan B, declare organizations like Planned Parenthood as criminal and fine medical providers who perform abortions.

#AceNewsGroup report …………..Published: Jan.26: 2020: Read Full ‘ Sanctuary Cities Report Here: Telegram: https://t.me/acenewsdaily/210261 – Ace Daily News, [Jan 26, 2020 at 13:53] OR via Ace Worldwide News Group https://ift.tt/37u02b4

Editor says #AceNewsDesk reports are provided at https://t.me/acenewsdaily and all our posts, links can be found at here Live Feeds https://acenewsroom.wordpress.com/ and thanks for following as always appreciate every like, reblog or retweet and free help and guidance tips on your PC software or need help & guidance from our experts AcePCHelp.WordPress.Com

#ACE NEWS GROUP COME AND JOIN OUR NEW…

#ACE NEWS GROUP – COME AND JOIN

OUR NEW FACEBOOK PAGE  

Feel free to come and join, it’s a group for sharing news and other items.

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Just click the link below or comment on the post and l will add you to the group.

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CHAT – POST – COMMENT – DEBATE 

#ANS2014

 

 

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`Happy Easter to All our Readers and Fellow Blogger’s Across the World ‘

#AceNewsGroup – HAPPY EASTER – April 20 – On this day l would like to wish all the fellow readers and bloggers a very Happy and Enjoyable Easter Day.

May there be Peace and not War and may all Countries Live in Harmony together, now and in the Future.

Amen.

#ANS2014

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#AceNewsGroup UK April 18 Says have a good…

#AceNewsGroup – UK – April 18 – Says have a good day and a Happy Good Friday to all our Readers.

#ANG2014

#good-friday

#AceNewsGroup says to all my reader and followers…

#AceNewsGroup says to all my reader and followers have just completed adding an Ace Guest News and Views box on Ace Finance News ‘ just add your news, views and videos by copying and pasting short URL from and post as easy as that. When you add your first post l will approve and after that just add whenever you like. Enjoy http://wp.me/zTwj

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Good evening from my UK home and to…

Good evening from my UK home and to all my friends and readers of my news articles and posts, well just so you can write your news as it happens, and chat on the go, l have just launched. `Ace Friends News ‘ anyone following my news can visit this link and post in the box.

It is not just 140 characters and you can post a link to a video or promote your group, charity, idea or really anything.

Add your own tags and links and enjoy chatting to fellow bloggers.

I ask for you to observe that we do not use it as a spam area, should this happen it will be closed to everyone and l will email those people ,to be the only users.

Thank you Editor (Ace News Group)

Follow this link to get started : http://wp.me/4kIzR

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#AceNewsGroup says Good Morning from a Bright and…

#AceNewsGroup says Good Morning from a Bright and Sunny UK to all our Readers.

#readers

” Ace News Group says a Great Big Thank You to All our Readers”

#AceNewsGroup says this is just to say a great big thank you to all my readers on helping me to reach the most likes in one day.

Thanks so muchIt makes it all worthwhile and l have added a category in your honour to be called simply:

#AceFriendsNews so that anyone posting an agreed post on the news line, will be added as a news friend.

I have a number of new and improved changes in the pipeline and will be advising further soon, as and when they are ready to launch.

These are the groups news group sites:

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Soon to be launched the Ace Publishing Network

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#AceNewsGroup says latest and #mustread post for #AceFoodNews…

#AceNewsGroup says latest and #mustread post for #AceFoodNews simply called #Chefs-tip:”Too Much White Sugar in Your Diet Can Cause Real Problems” http://wp.me/p2QGMH-fK

#diet, #white-sugar

#AceNewsGroup says to All its Readers “Thank You for 1000 Likes on Our Posts”

WP Like Button#AceNewsGroup says today marks another milestone for our group and it is all thanks to you the readers kind support and all your likes, as we have reached 1000 and we could not do it without your support.

So all l can say is a great big thank you from the Ace News GroupThanks in all languages   

 

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#AceNewsGroup Wishes All Our Readers A Happy New Year And A Prosperous 2014#Peace

https://acenewsservices.com/

Ace News Group Wishes All Its Readers A Happy And Prosperous New Year

#AceNewsGroup wishes all its readers a ” Happy New Year and a Prosperous 2014″ and may your life be filled with goodness and mercy. 

Reflections on a New Year that has not yet arrived, and one that began for me by “Caring” and ended with “Sharing” as l spoke to more people about their lives. 

As l grew into a person with greater compassion and humility, than l ever believed possible, by understanding forgiveness, that comes from experiences, never from judgement.

That allowing myself to release feelings, sometimes good and sometimes bad, allows want to turn to need, and need to turn to forgiveness.

So let 2014 be a year of “Peace and Love and let us all “Care and Share” and let “Charity” be from the “Heart” not our Pocket.  

God Bless.

Editor  

 

#chinese-new-year, #classroom, #friends, #god-bless, #happy-new-year, #holiday, #love, #new-year, #prosperous-new-year, #religion-and-spirituality

We thank you all

#AceNewsGroup says as the New Year swiftly approaches we try to remember such events that have changed our world, one such as reported by "Reporters Without Borders" is the number of Journalists who have died or been imprisoned in 2013. So to all those just reporting the #Truth l salute your work. Editor

This was just received about an hour ago and says thank you from them as well.

Dear donors, friends, correspondents and staff members,

It is not easy to end such a difficult year. According to our tally, 75 journalists were killed in 2013 just for doing their job and 177 were in prison as the year drew to a close. The situation of freedom of information is still alarming.

Many of you work all out, day and night, for our organization. Some of you are operating in the field and are constantly taking risks to defend freedom of information.

I would like to express my thanks to you all! We are infinitely indebted to you for your courage, commitment and generosity. We are proud to work for Reporters Without Borders for many reasons, but most of all because you are working with us.

To all the others, I would like to say that, while we constantly have more to do, our resources have been compromised by the crisis, which has hit us hard. We are desperately short of funds and I must therefore appeal to you again for your financial support.

I know that that the crisis helps no one and that not everybody is in a position to give, but it would make a big difference for freedom of information if those who are able were to give within the limits of their possibilities.

I would finally like to say that, for our fight on behalf of those who need freely reported news and information into order to live in freedom, each gift, each dollar counts.

https://donate.rsf.org/

I thank all of you, I wish you a festive New Year’s Eve, and I hope your goals are realized in 2014.

With best regards,

Christophe Deloire
Secretary general
Reporters Without Borders

This transmission is intended for the named addressee(s) only and may contain sensitive or protectively marked material up to RESTRICTED and should be handled accordingly. Unless you are the named addressee (or authorised to receive it for the addressee) you may not copy or use it, or disclose it to anyone else. If you have received this transmission in error please notify the sender immediately.

#acenewsgroup, #reporters-without-borders, #thank-you

“Merry Christmas To All Our Readers”

jesus_and_merry_wallpaper-450903

“Every Picture Tells a Story And This One Speaks Volumes For Those Willing To Listen”   

“HAPPY CHRISTMAS AND SEASONS GREETINGS TO EVERYONE AND MAY GOD BLESS YOU AND YOUR FAMILY”

Editor

#AceNewsGroup  

#acenewsgroup, #calendar, #christianity, #christmas, #holidays, #literature, #merry-christmas, #opinions, #readers, #religion-and-spirituality, #religious

#AceNewsGroup says Just Reached A Milestone On…

#AceNewsGroup says ” Just Reached A Milestone On “#AceNewsServices of “One Thousand Posts” so thanks to all my readers and followers, Now to the Next “One Thousand” Editor

#acenewsservices, #editor, #milestone

#ALERT #NEWS We are seeing the last days of America – Oh, and the World Trade Centre is Whistling?

#ALERT #NEWS We are seeing the last days of America – Oh, and the World Trade Centre is Whistling?

December 9, 2013
By DD

The end of the US Dollar is inevitable which will herald the start of global chaos leaving not one edge of the world free from the attempted NWO take over.

American-Constitution-Headstone--59716

I understand Glenn Beck is somewhat ridiculed in the US but from here in the UK he seems to be going the right way and his conclusion in this video about where we go from here is the same as mine. Perhaps I should be ridiculed too, but I’m so sick and tired of watching this Albert Pike plan come to fruition and the majority of people are still so asleep.

At present in the world there are race riots in Singapore, war in Syria, Iraq (Yes Iraq, Mr Rothschild has to keep this one going, right ol money spinner), Afghanistan, Bahrain, Libya, Egypt, riots in The Ukraine, innocent people being ‘Droned’ in Pakistan and the first signs of the west going in for the big gold oil and mineral rape of Africa. French troops are now in there tickling and getting the juices flowing and today the Americans said they’d help out too with the African Rape Process.

CAfrica
What about the UK? Our turn next and if you’re living anywhere near London you can feel the energy getting more and more unhinged, people are behaving differently, there’s an air of anxiety and fear of something of magnitude about to go off.

protestg20PA_450x300

Share this:CS2012

 

#acenewsgroup, #afghanistan, #albert-pike, #america, #bahrain, #glenn-beck, #iraq, #libya, #nwo, #syrian-civil-war, #ukraine, #united-states, #world-trade-centre

Obama’s “Home Affordable Modification Program” Modifies a Way to Foreclose this Person’s Home just Before #Christmas

HAMP#AceNewsGroup  says WASHINGTON  – Courtesy of MCDC  who have found and reported this story about how companies use HAMP! As Billions of dollars in foreclosure settlements between big banks and government regulators haven’t helped Laura Biggs.

The California woman is scheduled to lose her home nine days before Christmas because her mortgage company concluded that the house is no longer the primary residence of her husband, who’s been dead since 2003.

Technically, though, it still is George “Kenny” Mitchell’s primary residence. He resides at the home in Rialto, east of Los Angeles near San Bernardino, in an urn. His cremated remains are part of an altar that Biggs, 65, keeps in memory of the trucking-company manager. Many mementos from their marriage surround his smiling photo.

Biggs faces a Dec. 16 sale date, a holiday spoiler. It’s a property in which she’s built up more than $100,000 in equity and where she’s lived for 13 years, making payments on time. Her issue is back taxes, but more on that later.

“I’m getting ready to get tossed out. Whoever buys the property could toss me out,” she said.

The struggles of the career nurse who spent a lifetime helping others underscore this key point: Despite high-profile legal settlements in recent years that have resulted in large banks such as Bank of America, Citibank, Wells Fargo and JPMorgan Chase paying billions of dollars for past sins, the foreclosure process remains a mess.

Centre for Responsible Lending “It’s just a continuing misalignment of incentives: that a (mortgage) servicer doesn’t get paid for figuring this stuff out, but they get paid for foreclosure,” said Michael Calhoun, the president of the Durham, N.C.-based Center for Responsible Lending, which has fought to hold servicer’s accountable. “Even today, the servicers are understaffed and overwhelmed. If this were your local community bank, they of course would be working with you.”

Servicers are essentially mortgage-payment collectors for investors who bought slices of complex mortgage bonds, composed of thousands of mortgages that combine to provide the investor an income stream through the monthly payments made by Biggs and millions of other American homeowners.

SPSThe company that collects Biggs’ mortgage is Select Portfolio Servicing Inc., a Utah-based company that services many of the poorly underwritten sub-prime mortgages that helped trigger the 2008 financial crisis and a collapse in home prices. On its website, the company lists a P.O. Box in Salt Lake City for an address, offers no information on corporate officers and gives only toll-free phone numbers that feed to automated call centers.

BOFAThe company became a sub-servicer last year for Bank of America, which purchased disgraced subprime lender Countrywide Financial and its loan portfolio during the financial crisis.

HAMP ProgramPaperwork that McClatchy obtained shows that Select Portfolio Servicing initially worked with Biggs to find a solution, including a potential mortgage modification through the Obama administration’s Home Affordable Modification Program.

But in a Nov. 13 letter addressed not to Biggs – who’s on the deed to the property, though not on the loan – but to her late husband, who’d been dead for a decade, the servicer did an about-face.

“We are unable to offer you a HAMP modification because the property is not your primary residence,” the letter said, saying there’d be no foreclosure for at least 30 days. There now is a foreclosure date that’s three days after the 30-day window expires.

The problem of surviving spouses not being on loans is big enough that the Treasury Department, which devised a series of incentives for servicers to modify mortgages, has an entire section of a manual devoted to it.

“In this case, servicers should collect an Initial Package from the non-borrower who now owns the property and evaluate the request as if he or she was the borrower,” the guidance says, seemingly allowing Select Portfolio Servicing to treat Biggs as the homeowner. A Treasury spokeswoman, speaking only on the condition of anonymity as a matter of policy, said the agency didn’t comment on individual cases and didn’t collect data on the number of surviving spouses in loan modifications.

Mitchell’s loan originated with Countrywide, which underwrote it in April 2000. One reason Countrywide was so successful is it offered unsuspecting homeowners low monthly payments that didn’t include taxes and insurance. Only after signing the contracts did many homeowners learn that they were on the hook for taxes and insurance, too.

Mitchell and Biggs married in 1971, and although Biggs didn’t have her name on the title at the time, her name was on the check the couple sent to pay the mortgage. When he got sick with a disease that causes a cluster of veins in the brain to bleed, the couple started the process to add Biggs to the title but Mitchell, lapsing in and out of a near-comatose state, died before that could happen.

California law recognizes spouses as inheritors of property, and Biggs continued to pay the monthly mortgage with a check in her name. In 2005, Biggs had health problems, and while she kept making the mortgage payments she couldn’t pay the separate taxes and insurance. Select Portfolio Servicing added an escrow account and folded those payments into her monthly mortgage payments until they were paid off.

Fairbanks Capital CorpThe servicer had been renamed a year earlier from Fairbanks Capital Corp. after a $40 million settlement with the Federal Trade Commission in 2003 for illegal loan servicing practices. On its website today, Select Portfolio Servicing boasts that it handles more than 300,000 “nonprime residential mortgages.” That’s a more generous way of saying lower-performing subprime loans.

Biggs continued to pay her mortgage month after month but she fell behind again on the property taxes in 2011. Select Portfolio Servicing initially said in a letter on Jan. 5, 2012, that it would do the same as in 2005 and add those monthly amounts to the mortgage statement, like what’s done today on most new mortgages.

But when Biggs tried to talk directly with the company, customer services representatives refused to deal with her, insisting on speaking with Mitchell, something that’s impossible. The offer to roll the taxes into the loan was abruptly withdrawn, she said.

“Because my name was not on the loan, they wouldn’t talk to me,” Biggs said. “It always had my name on the checks. My name has been on those checks ever since we got the property. It was never an issue until last year.”

Biggs tried to continue making monthly mortgage payments but the servicer refused to accept them. The mortgage became delinquent and later was placed in default, despite more than $100,000 in equity built up.

“A little common sense. . . . Why wouldn’t you deal with this person?” said Calhoun, who has no involvement in the Biggs case. “It is just a lack of common sense, capacity and incentives. This is not a unique case.”

It wasn’t until this September that Select Portfolio Servicing began talking with Biggs, as an Oct. 2 sale date loomed. By then, her name was on the deed but still not on the loan.

“It wasn’t until I came to George that they realized that my husband was dead,” Biggs said.

George is George Bosch, the legal administrator for the Los Angeles-area law firm of Edward Lopez, which has taken the Biggs case pro bono.

“If you have a surviving spouse, legal documents are not necessary. (Select Portfolio Servicing) didn’t realize they were in California,” said Bosch, who did the paperwork for Biggs to seek a mortgage modification through the Home Affordable Modification Program. “They came with a new loophole. The guy doesn’t reside here.”

Select Portfolio Servicing, which doesn’t list a media contact on its website, didn’t return calls requesting comment.

Biggs authorized a McClatchy reporter to speak to a relationship manager with the company last week, and a representative of the servicer said Biggs didn’t qualify for a mortgage modification because she wasn’t the executor of Mitchell’s estate. When reminded that Bosch had cleared up this issue weeks ago, the representative agreed to escalate the case with an eye toward postponing the sale, which hadn’t happened as of the close of business Friday.The Treasury Department, in its third-quarter 2013 servicer assessment report, said Select Portfolio Servicing “has areas requiring moderate improvement” but stopped short of discontinuing the provision of financial incentives to the company to remain in the mortgage-modification program.

And Biggs? With a bad back that’s partially disabled her, she may not spend Christmas decorating her home but rather finding somewhere else to live.

“I couldn’t move in with family,” she said ruefully, noting that she has too many belongings and two dogs. “I’d actually have to find somewhere else to live.”

 

#acenewsgroup, #bank-of-america, #bank-of-america-home-loans, #biggs, #california, #center-for-responsible-lending, #federal-trade-commission, #home-affordable-modification-program, #laura-biggs, #los-angeles, #mortgage-loan, #salt-lake-city, #select-portfolio-servicing, #subprime-lending, #wells-fargo

#AceNews Group – Announces “Ace Daily News” Launched Today #AceNewsDesk”

#AceNewsDesk#AceNewsGroup

“Good Morning To All Of Our Readers “

As most who read our news daily all ready know, we strive to tell you the truth behind that story. Well in today’s world of so much corruption and lies and we find ourselves in the enviable position ,of being able to report on a number of areas. 
So l decided as “Editor in Chief ” to set-up ” Front Page as the “Ace Daily News” so when you visit our site all the day’s news will be on a simple easy to find and read news page for 24 hours.

So any reader can sign up for our news letter and will receive everyday our latest news articles ” Hot Off The Press

As a byline and as l have been asked and emailed so many times by readers ,l am introducing a weekly ” Guest Reader Spot ” whereby any reader using any of our news sites can add their own slant on a story ,or provide their own all for ” FREE And With Guaranteed ” network coverage, across our social media sites. So if you have anything to sell or would like to be feature your business idea, product or really anything you would like to say, drop an email with your details to me by adding a comment to this front page.

Kindest regards, 

EDITOR 

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Congress the Other Day Forced Asbestos Victims and Their Families to Release Private Information that will Put Them at Risk of Identity Theft

United States House of Representatives Seal

United States House of Representatives Seal (Photo credit: DonkeyHotey)

 

#AceWorldNews  says ” Asbestos Victims React To House Vote On H.R. 982 a few days ago that requests them to release private information ,that will put them at risk of identity theft”

 

Leaders of the Asbestos Cancer Victims Rights Campaign today reacted strongly to the 221-199 vote to pass the FACT Act, H.R. 982, by the House of Representatives.

 

Susan Vento, widow of Rep Bruce Vento (D-MN):

 

“I’m deeply disappointed in the vote, but grateful to the Members of Congress who stood up for asbestos victims and their families in opposing legislation that hurts cancer victims. We will continue to oppose this legislation and ensure that it never becomes law.”

 

Judy Van Ness, widow of Naval Veteran Richard L. Van Ness, commented after the vote:

 

Congress today forced asbestos victims and their families to release private information that will put them at risk of identity theft. This delays and could deny badly needed compensation to victims and their families.”

 

Contact: Joy Howell, ACVRC
202-828-7838, c-202-302-5932

 

 

 

 

 

 

English: photograph of Bruce Vento from http:/...

English: photograph of Bruce Vento from http://bioguide.congress.gov (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

 

SOURCE  Asbestos Cancer Victims Rights Campaign

 

Asbestos Cancer Victims Rights Campaign

 

WASHINGTON, Nov. 13, 2013 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ —

 

 

 

#acehealthnews, #acejusticenews, #acenewsgroup, #asbestos, #bruce-vento, #cancer, #fair-and-accurate-credit-transactions-act, #identity-theft, #member-of-congress, #pr-newswire, #united-states-congress, #united-states-house-of-representatives

History of Political Philosophy a Throffer is a Proposal with a Threat – Or a Coercive Control

Abuse: power & control behaviours

In political philosophy, a throffer is a proposal that mixes an offer  with a threat which will be carried out if the offer is not accepted. The term was first used in print by political philosopher Hillel Steiner, and while other writers followed, it has not been universally adopted. An example (pictured) is “Kill this man and I’ll pay you—fail to kill him and I’ll kill you instead.” Steiner differentiated offers, threats and throffers based on the preferably of compliance and non-compliance for the subject compared to the normal course of events that would have come about were no intervention made, although this approach has been criticised. Throffers form part of the wider moral and political considerations of coercion, and form part of the question of the possibility of coercive offers. The theoretical concerns surrounding throffers have been practically applied concerning workfare programmes, where individuals receiving social welfare have their aid decreased if they refuse the offer of work or education. Several writers have also observed that throffers presented to people convicted of crimes, particularly sex offenders, can result in more lenient sentences if they accept medical treatment.

Coercion

First published Fri Feb 10, 2006; substantive revision Thu Oct 27, 2011
Bullying

Bullying (Photo credit: aeneastudio)

The concept of coercion has two different faces, corresponding to the two parties involved in its most ordinary cases. On one face, it picks out a technique agents (coercers) can use to get other agents to do or not do something. On the other face, it picks out a kind of reason for why agents (coercees) sometimes do or refrain from doing something. Coercion is typically thought to carry with it several important implications, including that it diminishes the targeted agent’s freedom and responsibility, and that it is a (pro tanto) wrong and/or violation of right. Nonetheless, few believe that it is always unjustified, since it seems that no society could function without some authorized uses of coercion. It helps keep the bloody minded and recalcitrant from harming others, and seems also to be an indispensable technique in the rearing of children. A state’s legitimacy and sovereignty is sometimes thought to depend on its ability to use coercion effectively and to monopolize its use within its territory against competitors, both internal and external.

Because of its usefulness and its sometimes devastating effects, coercion is a matter of longstanding political and ethical concern. Nonetheless, there has been little sustained scholarly attention to its nature until recently; historically, many seem to have willed to accept the concept of coercion as a primitive. Since the 1970s, however, the nature and function of coercion has come in for significant philosophical discussion. This flourishing of interest may have been sparked by social unrest (including efforts to suppress it) and the success of some mass non-violent resistance movements. Also of import were tensions between the U.S. and U.S.S.R., centered on their arsenals of nuclear weapons, by which each aimed to deter the other from disastrous behaviour, including the launching of a nuclear first-strike. More recently, philosophical interest in globalization and terrorism have added to interest in coercion. The new-found interest in the topic coincides with a marked change in the way philosophers have understood its nature. Though the pace of study has slowed somewhat since 1990, the nature of coercion and its effects remains a matter of dispute.

Sometimes the term “coercion” is used in popular speech with a broad sense. For instance, one hears “coercion” used to describe social pressures (e.g., the need to conform to peer expectations or to placate one’s parents); or the constraining or manipulative effects of advertising, one’s upbringing, or the structuring of society more generally (e.g., the necessity of participating in a capitalist economy). It is also sometimes treated as a general concept encompassing almost any sort of interpersonal infringement on one’s rights. Such uses are not wholly foreign to philosophical discussions (see, e.g., Ripstein 2004). Nonetheless, the following discussion will focus on a narrower sense of the term more in line with its use by major historical philosophical writers and contemporary theorists alike. This usage will rule out, by stipulation, such things as mere disapproval, emotional manipulation, or wheedling. (What is “ruled in” is subject to dispute, as is discussed below.) This minimal setting of boundaries still leaves much room for disagreement over how best to understand coercion’s workings, its preconditions, and its effects.

1. History

Coercion

Coercion (Photo credit: phil dokas)

Historically, the use of coercion by powerful actors has been of great concern to philosophers and legal theorists. Detailed attention to understanding the concept coercion, however, is a relatively recent phenomenon. One effect of this discrepant attention is that it is sometimes difficult to determine what precise meaning earlier writers intended in their discussions of “coercion,” as well as to decide whether “coercion” captures something different from or related to other frequently used terms, such as violencecompulsionpunishmentforce, orinterference. A brief survey of a few notable thinkers suggests that coercion has commonly been understood as a use of a certain kind of power for the purpose of gaining advantages over others (including self-protection), punishing non-compliance with demands, and imposing one’s will on the will of other agents. The kind of power needed for these functions is the sort that states and other forceful or violent agents possess. One of the clearest, most important uses of coercion has been understood to be the state’s enforcement of law, either through direct uses of force or through punishments meted out to lawbreakers. The state’s use of coercion is thought to be licensed in particular for the sake of preventing private acts of violence or coercion, as well as for punishing the failure to keep agreements. These public uses of coercion are thought justified because they make possible private cooperation and peaceable coexistence among people not linked by ties of affection or blood.

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