EUropean Economic Community: “Berlin 1942, Bildeberg’s, Tri-Lateral Commission and the New World Order”

#AceWorldNews says when researching articles related to the European Union of EEC as it was known back in 1942. I came across this interesting pamphlet, and it related to structure of the EEC. It was originally a Europaische WirtschaftsGemeinschaft and has been translated.  

Coat of arms of Berlin. Español: Escudo de Ber...

Coat of arms of Berlin. Español: Escudo de Berlín. Eesti: Berliini vapp. Français : Blason de Berlin. Polski: Herb Berlina. Svenska: Berlins vapen. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

EUropean Economic Community

 Von:

ReichsWirtschaftMinister u. President der Deutschen ReichsBank Funk;

Professor Dr. Jecht, Berlin; Professor Dr. Woermann, Halle;

Dr. Reithinger, Berlin; MinisterialDirektor Dr. Benning, Berlin;

Gesandter Dr. Clodius, Berlin, und GauWirtschaftsBerater Professor

Dr. Hunke, Berlin

Mit einer EinFuhrung von:

GauWirtschaftsBerater Professor Dr. Heinrich Hunke

President des Vereins Berliner Kaufleute und Industrieller

HerausGeGeben von dem

Verein Berliner Kaufleute und der Wirtschafts – HochSchule

Und Industrieller Berlin

Published

BERLIN 1942

Second edition 1943

  • Haude & Spenesche VerlagsBuchHandlung Max Paschke

——————————————————————————————————————————

To assist non Germans, reading the above, certain letters have been capitalised for convenience ONLY

Being the FIRST of a series of Pamphlets being published on the internet Greg Lance-Watkins, who has overseen this project for “The Silent Majority” over the last few years would like to thank ALL those who have helped in tracking down the original full text in German, and the short term acquisition thereof, for photocopying., Also for the lengthy process of accurate translation and independent checking of the translation work.

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The original copy is available for inspection at Glance Back Books in Chepstow.

The European Economic Community

  • Mr. Funk, the Reich’s Economic Minister and President of the German Reichsbank
  • Professor Dr. Jecht, Berlin
  • Professor Dr. Woermann, Halle
  • Dr. Reithinger, Berlin, Ministerial Director
  • Dr. Beisiegel, Berlin
  • Secretary of State Königs, Berlin
  • Director Dr. Benning, Berlin
  • Ambassador Dr. Clodius, Berlin and Economics Committee Advisor
  • Professor Dr. Hunke, Berlin

With an introduction by:

  •  Economics Committee Advisor, Professor Dr. Heinrich Hunke, President of the Society of Berlin Industry and Commerce

 Issued by:

  •  The Society of Berlin Industry and Commerce and the Berlin School of Economics

 Second Revised Edition (Berlin 1943)

  •  Haude and Spenersche Publishing House Max Paschke

 Preface to the First and Second Edition:

 This text contains the lectures presented under the title “The European Economic Community” by the Society of Berlin Industry and Commerce at the start of 1942 in conjunction with the Economic Advisor to the Berlin Committee of the NSDAP and The Chamber of Trade and Industry. The order of lectures was as follows:

  •  Walter Funk, Reichs Economic Minister and President of the Reichsbank:
“The Economic Face of Europe” 
  •  Dr. Horst Jecht, Professor at The Berlin School of Economics:
“Developments towards the European Economic Community”
“European Agriculture”
  • Dr. Anton Reithinger, Director of the Economics Department of I.G. Farbenindustrie A.G., Berlin:

“The European Industrial Economy”

  • Dr. Philipp Beisiegel, Ministerial Director of the Reich’s Labour Ministry:

“The Deployment of Labour in Europe”

  • Gustav Koenigs, Secretary of State, Berlin:

“Questions About European Transport”

  • Dr. Bernhard Benning, Director of the Reich’s Credit Company, Berlin:

“Questions About Europe’s Currency”

  • Dr. Carl Clodius, Ambassador of the Foreign Office:

“European Trade and Economic Agreements’’

  • Professor Dr. Heinrich Hunke, Economic Committee Advisor of the NSDAP, President of Germany’s Economic Publicity Agency and the Berlin Society of Industry and Commerce:

“The Basic Question: Europe – Geographical Concept or Political Fact?”

The lectures met with considerable interest and very strong agreement. On account of this, we feel we should make them available to a wider circle of people.

Berlin, September 1942

  •  The Society of Berlin’s Trade and Industry – The President: Professor Dr. Heinrich Hunke, Advisor to the Economics Committee
  •  The Berlin School of Economics – The Rector: Dr. Edwin Fels, Professor of Geography

 Including Reinhard Heydrich’s 1942 Reichs Plan for The Domination of EUrope – published in Berlin in 1942 believed to have been November.

Potsdamer Platz, Berlin, 1945. On the left the...

Potsdamer Platz, Berlin, 1945. On the left the Columbushaus, on the right the ruin of Hotel Fürstenhof. Canadian soldiers in the jeep. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

ALSO – details of the Berlin Conference of 1944 Titled ‘How Will Germany Dominate The Peace, When It Loses The War.’ & details of the massive amounts of cash moved out of Germany during the war to safeguard the future of German domination against the economic collapse of losing the Second World War against EUropean Union. AND connections with organisations like The Bilderbergers, Council for Foreign relations, Tri Lateral Commission and other arms of the New World Order.

  •  Introduction – by Professor Dr. Heinrich Hunke, Economic Committee Adviser to the NSDAP, President of Germany’s Economic Publicity Agency

 

Enlargement of the European Union (animation) ...

Enlargement of the European Union (animation) European Community European Union (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Around the end of 1939, most of Europe was either consciously or unconsciously under the influence of the economic concept of England. Over recent years, however, it has been swept out of European countries, politically, militarily and economically. Politically the three-power pact has given honour once again to the ancient figures of life, people and room. It has also established a natural order and a neighbourly way of co-existing as the ideal of the new order. The foundation of English economics, which is the basis of the balance of powers, has been militarily destroyed. And economically, a change has come about following the political and military development, the shape of which is easy to describe, but whose final significance is very difficult to evaluate. I can only repeat, that the changing order that is happening now has to be ranked as one of the greatest economic revolutions in history. It signifies a reversion of the economy of Europe to a time before the English concept of building an overseas Europe, i.e. an awareness of one’s own country.

The Discussion so far and its Results:

NSADPDiscussions about questions relating to Europe started as the power of the NSADP grew. At the Congress of Europe in Rome from 14th to 20th November 1932, Alfred Rosenberg developed, for the first time in front of an international forum, thoughts and ideas that have moved us since. No one, who fights for a new economic order in Europe, can ignore these perceptions and conclusions. The economic and political wheel was set in motion, when the NSDAP declared the militarisation of the German economy. It is to the credit of the journal ‘Germany’s Economy’ that it first seized these questions in 1932, kept on bringing them up and stuck doggedly to those original perceptions. The idea of German economic self- sufficiency in the new political sense and the German economic militarisation are synonymous with this journal. Besides this, Daitz, the ambassador, has earned the special credit of being the first to have related German economic history to the present time. Part II of his selected speeches and essays, which appeared in 1938 under the title ‘Germany and the European Economy’, summarizes his concepts formed between 1932 and 1938. The Italian, Carlo Scarfoglio, delivered with his book ‘England and the Continental Mainland’, a decisive historical contribution to the consciousness of the European continent. Meanwhile German and Italian economic policy drew the political consequences from the historical lessons that were learnt during the blockade and learnt again during the sanctions. The speech made in Munich in 1939 by the leader of the Reich’s farmers, R. Walther Darre, at the 6th Great Lecture at the Commission of Economic Policy of the NSDAP, takes a special place in the discussion at that time. Its theme was “The market order of the National-Socialist agricultural policy – setting the pace for a new foreign trade order.”

 While our leader maintained the hope of reaching a peaceful agreement with England, the route for European economic unity remained problematic. The end of 1939 was a decisive point and it was natural that the years 1940-1941 heralded the new economic and political order. The writer, in particular, developed and extended in speech and writing the intellectual fund of the new economic policy, which has been translated into most languages, so that today everywhere the great constructive texts are known. These contexts revolve around the following issues:

  1.  Theory about the Reich and the European economy.
  1. The historic, cultural, and economic significance of the German economic order.

  1. The foundations of the future economic relationships between the states.

  1. The nature of the European economic community.

On 25th June 1940 the Reich’s Economic Minister, Funk, publicised in his official capacity his thoughts, which underlined the development so far and thus gave them state sanction. In October, the journal ‘German Economy’ summarised for the first time the principles of European co-operation, the fundamental principles of German foreign trade, Germany’s export economy and ways and means of promoting export. It did so in a popular review “About A New Europe”, providing an overview of the important problem of European economic fusion. Around the end of 1940 the Berlin historian Fritz Rorig finally outlined in his book “Hanseatic Essence” the historical foundations of the greatest economic and political achievement by the Germans.

I am clear in my mind that total clarity is to be found in the principle questions: The necessity is recognised for a political order for the economic co-operation of the people. The nature of the new order which is: awareness of tradition, using up one’s own economic resources, long term economic agreements and fair relations, is affirmed. The economic inter-dependence is underlined by fate. The economic unity of Europe is thus evident.

 Economic Practice:

  1.  Even practical economic life has increasingly allowed entry to new thoughts. I am able to see the decisive steps in the start and realisation of the following points:
  2.  In the increasing payment traffic through Berlin.
  3.  In the exchange of experiences in various areas of economic life. Thereto belong also the statements of ministers and business people, the calls made by special advisers and the collective tackling of important tasks relating to the economy. Even the specialist is surprised, once he has taken the trouble to put together all the connections. Today they are already legion.
  4.  In the signing of long term economic agreements between the Reich and the other European states, which the public is aware of. There can be no doubt that such agreements are those of the future.
  5.  Of course, that cannot prevent unclear points and new problems from arising, which become evident at the time when the situation is reviewed.

ECC Problems Related to the Economic Community of Continental Europe

 These unclear points primarily relate to the concept of economic direction, the extent of solidarity and neighbourly attitude, the development of one’s own powers, the care to maintain the standard of living and the question of raw material purchase from foreign countries. It is natural that one or another issue will take priority of interest, depending on the set of conditions that prevail. It should be attempted at this point to give a reply, albeit a summary one.

 There can be no doubt that the concept of direction of the economy, or rather its leadership, is as novel as it is revolutionary. Its classification is all the more important, as the fate and consequence of European co-operation depend principally on a new consistent form of economic understanding. The Anglo-Saxon view of economics is dead: consequently, even the so-called ‘classical’ national economy is no longer classical, but it has survived. So what it comes down to is that a new understanding arises to do with ideology and terminology, which represents a sound basis for agreement and co-operation. Relating to this, one must point out the following in detail:

 Economic direction is not a momentary emergency solution, instead it forms the core of new theory and practice. First of all, it takes the place of individual egotism and the automatic autonomy of the Anglo-Saxon precept.

 Economic direction is not identical to the tendencies of a centrally planned economy. It does not seek to cancel the individual or to administer through the state operators.

 Economic direction really means the following: the new instruction of the creative and constructive power of the individual in relation to the whole system; the creation of a consistent economic view and an attitude towards the economy; the selection of important tasks through political leadership and the state’s final decision on all questions about economic power. Beyond this, the economy is free and responsible to itself.

The degree of solidarity of the individual economies and their neighbourly attitude is characterised by three guidelines:

Firstly, it is limited in regard to its own economic development by the recognition that the utilisation of individual resources represents not only a requirement of the new economic precept, but is the very foundation for economic activity. The European economic community has no interest in leaving any abilities or possibilities unutilised.

Secondly, it contains the obligation that, because of Europe’s freedom, consideration is given firstly to continental Europe regarding any matter related to economic activity. Not only should the shared fate of the European people be emphasized, but the fact should also be stressed that the supplementation of the European economies beyond their borders is possible and sought after.

Thirdly, it must be maintained that, above all else, the spirit of the individual economies may not be allowed to go against the spirit of neighbourly co-operation.

The question of developing one’s own powers refers to the problem of monocultures, of industrialisation of the agrarian south-east and the awakening of new needs.

An answer can easily be given to the first question. Monocultures are the result of the same economic precept that made the world market price the determining factor in the economy. According to that precept, people and land are the vestiges of some by-gone age. Europe is well on the way to destroying these mono-cultures with initiatives ranging from land improvements and growing new crops to discovering new local resources. All these have the same aim, which is to develop the economy and broaden its basis. Germany and the whole of Europe can only greet these efforts with gratitude.

The industrialisation of the south-east poses a particular problem regarding these questions. As I am unable to handle this problem – like all other problems – here in a comprehensive and exhaustive manner, because the industrialisation of economies is theoretically a difficult problem, I can only say as follows:

Just as it is in the nature of things that each country will strive to utilise its available resources for its own production, so will there will be a knock-on effect for other economic partners.

If, as is the case in the South-east European countries, there is heavy over-population in the countryside, then there are only three possibilities to solve it: itinerant workers, a permanent emigration and an ‘intensivisation’ of the local economy, a term correctly created by Dr. Ilgner for the problem of industrialisation. Itinerant workers can only form a part solution. Besides, it only applies to agricultural and construction workers and gone on for ages. Permanent emigration from Europe is just as false as impossible. There just remains the intensivisation of the economies of south-east Europe as the way to self-help.

 The economies should make it possible for an independent life according to the modern economic view. The intensivisation of their economies therefore is right for the time.

The old features of industrialisation, which evolved from the price collapses in countries with agriculture and raw materials, have to now belong to the past. Europe is a communal living area. Only through a joint development of economies – and not through independence from one another – can protection against crises be achieved.

The tasks that have to be solved in Europe are so big that the powers needed to do so have to be released by an intensivisation of the individual economies. This can be easily done by employing the workers that have been liberated in new branches of the economy.

Without affecting the difficult questions of purchasing power, it can be regarded as proven that the joint work to build up Germany’s and the   south-eastern states’ in the area of industrialisation lies in the direction of the intensivation of interest of the whole continent.

One important and until now completely overlooked task in this regard exists and that is the awakening of new needs in the south-eastern countries. It is because, in those countries, wealth has grown and will gradually continue to grow, as a result of the reliable purchase of agricultural products and available raw materials at adequate price levels. According to the principle in economics that giving equals taking, peoples’ living habits there will have to change, otherwise one day the process will come to a halt. Germany’s ability to absorb the products from the south-east is practically infinite, whereas creating a demand for German goods there is not only a matter for economic intensivation but also one of modifying the people so they consume more. This task is of such importance that it has to be considered from the very outset, so that the south-eastern European economies are elevated after the war.

Equally important as the industrialisation of south-east Europe is the question of the standard of living in the north. Their economic development and high standard of living, which underpin their lives though all economic conditions, should not be mistaken. This standard of living has grown considerably during the 19th century and around the time of the world war due to free trade, so that various circles view world economic events with particular concern. From a German viewpoint, only the following points can be made:

Firstly, a higher standard of living is also the aim of the German government. The German people not only understand this well, but also through its fight wants to ensure European civilisation and culture. This fight will benefit the whole of Europe, and with it the north.

Secondly, despite being connected successfully to England and its economic system (one should not ignore the countless economic troughs that feature there), the economies of the north whose fate and greatness are very closely linked to Germany.

Thirdly, the northern states’ difficulties are going through a temporary phase of adjustment. In the long term, this will bring about a lasting advancement, rather than destruction, for their economies’ foundations.

Maintaining a high standard of living is not an insoluble problem. To finish, I now come to the problem of purchasing raw materials from overseas markets. A leading south-east European economist once wrote about this principal question: “Unlike the war, we were in the following situation: in order to import raw materials from overseas countries, we bought goods from west European countries with foreign exchange. In the area of continental Europe there is no gold. Everything had to pass through the system of clearing – goods sold against goods. We have no product that can be sold to North or South America. That means that the leading nations are obliged to acquire and distribute to us the raw materials that we need. The leading nations of Europe can supply, with its capacity, enough products to overseas countries with which to acquire raw materials. The one question is whether exchange will ever happen… Even before the new order is introduced, and without even joining in with the Axis powers, we stand in solidarity outside Europe with its traffic of goods…”

We can only agree with this view, leaving the matter open, as the Reich’s Economic Minister Funk described, how large the direct sources of help will be and whether raw material acquisition from overseas will take place through the system of clearing or free flow of currency. With the introduction of the multi-lateral clearing system, on a practical level there is no change from the pre-war time. As this learned person said, “All the benefits of the method of paying are regained from the system of free currency.” Nor can it be realised – contrary to him – that this system of clearing through Berlin should function without those countries outside the European system. But the decisive factor is the way in which the continent is bound to Germany and Italy by one fate.

Since 1940, therefore, we are faced with an unparalleled economic and political revolution. The problems created for us are large but can be solved. Their solution will give Europe the peace it yearns for and will bring a great era of joint development. It is worth fighting and working for this, in the future. …………………………………

The following discourses should contribute to helping us to broaden and deepen our understanding of the tasks and nature of the European economic community.

 

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#aceworldnews, #berlin, #berlin-society-of-industry, #england, #european-economic-community, #european-union, #german, #germany, #heinrich-hunke, #reinhard-heydrich

” Teaching’s According to Justin Welby and the Church of England Cause’s Furore”

Baptism#AceNewsServices says the latest Mail on Sunday article has highlighted that parents and grandparents no longer have to cast out the devil or repent of their sin‘s. The article went onto say this was after the Church of England rewrote the solemn ceremony.

The new wording is designed to be easier to understand – but critics are stunned at such a fundamental change to a cornerstone of their faith, saying the new ‘dumbed-down’ version ‘strikes at the heart’ of what baptism means.

In the original version, the vicar asks: ‘Do you reject the devil and all rebellion against God?’ The parents would say “We Do” thus affirming that this child would be brought up in the “Eyes of God” without reference to the sin that is within people! This affirmation goes back centuries and has become the cornerstone of “Christening A Child in the Eyes of God” [As the one that sees all our sins] so for the Church of England to change such a solemn rite, has caused many to speak out about the fact, and that these words were the cornerstone of their faith, and the dumbed down version changes the context of what it means to be christened.

Cast out SinIt appears that the draft was drawn up by the Church’s Liturgy Commission to redress fears the current version was too off-putting for lay people who only go to church for baptisms, weddings or funerals.

So is this change for change sake just to get people into church as congregations dwindle?

Or maybe it is time for the hierarchy to climb down from their pedestals and get more in touch with the people in the street, by giving of themselves and not taking away what people have the right to believe.

Ace Related News: #AceHistoryNews

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#acenewsservices, #archbishop-of-canterbury, #canterbury-justin-welby, #christianity, #church, #church-of-england, #churchs-liturgy-commission, #england, #god, #justin-welby, #parents-and-grandparents, #religion-and-spirituality

UK Government: Changing Law So #Fracking “Could be Carried out Under People’s Home’s Without Need to Notify Owners”

#AceNewsServices says according to the latest from RT that Hydraulic fracturing may soon take place under thousands of homes across the United Kingdom without their owners’ knowledge. Based on a proposed law change the burden of notifying home-owners will be lifted from energy companies, the Guardian reports.

Planning Minister Nick Boles said a change in UK law will allow gas companies to put in drilling applications without notifying those in the area whose property could be affected, the Guardian reported. Companies will instead have to post notices in local newspapers and erect site displays in local parishes.

Many opposed to #fracking cite potential health risks, air pollution and water contamination, as well as possible earthquakes. Nevertheless, the government portrayed alerting all those possibly impacted by localized #fracking as too much of a burden for companies to weather.

It would require a “disproportionately large number of individuals and businesses” to receive notice, said Boles in a statement to MPs.

Hydraulic fracturing, or #fracking, is the highly controversial process of injecting water, sand and various chemicals into layers of rock in hopes of releasing oil and gas deep underground. Because it takes place far below ground, the gas companies themselves may not understand exactly where they are drilling.

“The associated underground extraction takes place very deep below the Earth’s surface, over a wide geographical area,” Boles said. “As a result, it is often not possible to identify the exact route of any lateral drilling.”

Without the changes to the secondary legislation, the widely drawn area on planning applications for onshore oil and gas projects would require the notification of a disproportionately large number of individuals and businesses. This would be unnecessarily excessive when other forms of complimentary notification exist.”

Ministers have dismissed any safety or environmental concerns posed by #fracking, instead touting the economic benefits while saying any drilling will be done responsibly. Other MPs are nervous about the new edict, The Guardian reported, based on high-profile protests in areas where drilling has been proposed.

On Tuesday the Conservative-led government issued a 49-page energy roadmap outlining ways in which oil and natural gas, including shale deposits, could be exploited in the country.

Britain’s Department of Energy and Climate Change identified new areas across the UK thought to hold rich, untapped stores of shale gas, The Daily Telegraph reported. As part of a new initiative by Westminster, these areas may become subject to test drilling, which could pave the way for #fracking if large deposits of shale gas are found.

“The government is keen to explore the potential for shale gas in the UK which could bring major benefit in terms of growth, jobs and energy security,” British Energy Minister Michael Fallon said in a statement. “However we must develop shale responsibly, both for local communities and for the environment.”

In a letter to European Commission President Jose Manuel Barroso made public on Tuesday, Prime Minister David Cameron warned that European Union regulations could stifle investment in Britain’s shale gas industry.

“I am not in favour of new legislation where the lengthy time frames and significant uncertainty involved are major causes for concern,” Cameron wrote in the letter dated December 4, Reuters reports. “The industry in the UK has told us that new EU legislation would immediately delay imminent investment.”

#NoFrackingHere

#NoFrackingHere

#Fracking has met widespread opposition in the UK, with local communities taking to the streets in protest. In the city of Salford, Greater Manchester, activists blocked access to a test drilling site on Monday, placing a 1.5-ton wind turbine blade in front of the Barton Moss facility in what they called a “symbolic” act of protest.

Friends of the Earth campaigner Tony Bosworth called the government’s moves on #fracking objectionable given the drilling technique has been identified by officials as having “potentially significant local impacts.”

#StopFrackingUpOurLives

#StopFrackingUpOurLives

“People should be notified personally if firms want to drill or frack for oil and gas under their homes. Removing that right is a further blow to local communities who are rightly concerned about the impacts of #fracking,” he said. “Ministers should be strengthening rules to protect local people, not weakening them in yet another sop to an industry that wants to keep us hooked on dirty fossil fuels.”

A new report published in the latest edition of the journal Endocrinology shows a dozen chemicals used regularly in #fracking are suspected of being endocrine disrupting chemicals, or EDCs — chemicals that can interfere with the human body’s endocrine functions and have been linked to heightened risks of cancer, low fertility rates and decreased sperm quality.

EDITOR: says so how can this situation have arisen and who really owns the land two metres below the surface? Well having done some recent research and this article it states as follows:

COLUMN-Frack on Your Majesty, you may be a shale gas winner:Kemp
Fri, Dec 14 15:22 PM GMT

By John Kemp

LONDON, Dec 14 (Reuters) – Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II could be in line for a windfall now that her government is prepared to start granting licences to frack for shale gas again.

In her capacity as the Duke of Lancaster, the Queen owns more than 50,000 acres and subsurface rights to tens of thousands more across northern England, the part of the country that has drawn the most interest from companies hunting for shale gas. #Fracking firms will have to pay to put wells on her property or to drill through the subsurface mineral layers that she owns.

Potential payments to the Duchy are just one example of a wider phenomenon. The prospect of widespread #fracking, or hydraulic fracturing, has helped set off something of a rush among the owners of ancient mineral rights to register them ahead of an October 2013 deadline set by the Land Registration Act, in order to claim possible compensation.

THE DUCHY OF LANCASTER:

The Duchy of Lancaster, which dates back to the 14th century, is separate from the Crown Estate, historical land holdings and other royal possessions. Revenue from that property goes to the government in exchange for an annual payment to help cover the costs of running the monarchy.

The Duchy holds assets in trust to provide an income for the Queen and her successors as sovereign. In March 2012, it had assets valued at 405 million pounds ($653.5 million) and was providing an annual income of 13 million pounds, which the Queen uses to meet her private expenditure and official expenditure incurred as sovereign.

The Duchy has valuable commercial property in central London (clustered around the ancient manor of the Savoy around the Embankment and the Strand) as well as in northern England.

But the major part of its landholding, in terms of surface area, is held as rural estates spread across the counties of Lancashire (10,000 acres), Yorkshire (16,000 acres), other parts of northern England and the Midlands.

In addition, over the centuries when the Duchy sold off some of its holdings, it reserved ownership of the subsurface mineral rights. As a result, it also owns mineral rights beneath tens of thousands more acres across the north of England, even though the surface is now owned by others.

ANCIENT LORDS OF THE MANOR:

Mineral rights and royalties produced an income of just $270,000 in the year ended March 2012. However, like other major landowners, including the Church of England, the Duchy has been busy registering its historic ownership of these mineral rights ahead of the deadline set by the Land Registration Act.

“Mineral interests are a relatively small element of the Duchy portfolio, but windfall opportunities do emphasise the importance of protecting these interests,” the Duchy explained in its annual report.

“The Land Registration Act has necessitated mineral owners to register their titles with the Land Registry, and the Duchy has been doing this in respect of both its surface and mineral ownership.

#Fracking has set off a modern land rush. According to the “Daily Telegraph” newspaper: “The Duke of Northumberland, Duke of Bedford and Earl of Lonsdale have all registered manorial rights. Ordinary people who live in manor houses or old rectories may also have ‘lordships of the manor’ and therefore own mineral rights in the area.” (“Lords of the manor to cash in on fracking” November 2012)

DRILLING AND ANCILLARY RIGHTS:

Like other private landowners, the Duchy of Lancaster does not own the oil and gas found under its estates or as a result of its reserved mineral rights.

In contrast to the United States, where oil and gas deposits are in private ownership and the owner receives royalties from #fracking firms for extracting them, in the United Kingdom petroleum resources are in state ownership.

Under the 1934 Petroleum Production Act, all oil and gas deposits are owned by the Queen in her official capacity as “the Crown”, which in practice means they are government property.

Section 1 of the Act states: “The property in petroleum existing in its natural condition in strata in Great Britain is hereby vested in His Majesty, and His Majesty shall have the exclusive right of searching and boring for and getting such petroleum”, which means oil and natural gas.

Licences to explore and exploit oil and gas resources onshore are granted by the government. But “the rights granted by the landward licences do not include any rights to access, and the licensees must also obtain any consent under current legislation, including planning permission,” according to the British Geological Survey.

So anyone wanting to get at the oil and gas must negotiate with the surface owner for permission to drill a well and build other facilities such as access roads and storage tanks. If the surface owner refuses, the driller must apply for a court order under the 1966 Mines Act to acquire the ancillary rights needed to get access to the oil and gas and pay what the court rules to be appropriate compensation.

As a major landowner in the north of England, the Duchy of Lancaster will be able to charge anyone who wants to drill on surface land it owns. Under a recent court ruling, however, it may also be able to charge anyone who wants to drill through the underground areas it owns, even if they build surface facilities on someone else’s land.

DEVIATED WELLS, SUBSURFACE OWNERS:

In 2009, in a case that pitted Star Energy against Bocardo, a company ultimately owned by well-known businessman Mohammed Al-Fayed, the Court of Appeal ruled that Star had to pay compensation for trespass for drilling a deviated (angled) oil well under Bocardo’s property, even though the well started on someone else’s land and was at least 800 feet below the surface when it entered the area under Bocardo’s land.

“I reach this conclusion with reluctance,” the judge explained. “The trespass is purely technical, because it did not interfere with Bocardo’s use or enjoyment of its land one iota. More over, Bocardo has lost no rights because it neither owned the oil that has been removed from strata within its land; nor did it have the right to search, bore for and get such petroleum. Those rights belonged exclusively to the Crown and its licensee (Star)”.

Nonetheless, even though Star possessed a licence, it still needed to negotiate Bocardo’s permission to drill through all the other layers and mineral’s Bocardo owned underneath its property or apply to court and pay compensation. Having failed to do either, Star was ordered to pay £1000.

But that was for using three pipelines  beneath Bocardo’s land at depths between 800 and 2800 feet below the surface, and extending just 500-700 metres below Bocardo’s Oxted estate. Fracking will employ much longer horizontal wells and affect much bigger areas of the subsurface. The compensation required could be correspondingly larger.

Since the Duchy of Lancaster owns the mineral rights across large swathes of the north of England, frackers will have to negotiate appropriate payments to drill through all the strata it owns (including for example the coal deposits it has been busy registering).

In contrast to conventional oil and gas fields, which have a fairly limited impact on the surface and cover a restricted underground area, fracking involves drilling a much larger number of wells with horizontal sections extending thousands of feet. It has a very large footprint on both the surface and the subsurface, and a corresponding increase in compensation payments to a large number of land owners.

Revenues  from #fracking are unlikely to put the Queen’s personal income on a par with the sultan of Brunei, and she should probably not starting ordering a new Royal Yacht, but they could make a small addition towards the cost of running her household.

Ace Related News: 

EPA

Natural Gas

Birth Defects 

White House Government View 

Public Health Authority View  

New York’s View  

 

#acenewsdesk, #acenewsservices, #balcombe, #barton-moss, #britain, #cuadrilla-resources, #david-cameron, #endocrine-disruptor, #england, #guardian, #hydraulic-fracturing, #london, #michael-fallon, #nicholas-boles, #reuters, #salford-greater-manchester, #tuesday, #uk-government, #united-states

Paying to Carry your Shopping Home Gets a Price Tag – But How Much Will You Pay

#AceConsumerNews says call for evidence: “Plastic Bag Charge” for England

Overview: SURVEY 

Plastic Bag Charges just 5pThis Call for Evidence is an opportunity for you to provide evidence on key aspects of how the plastic bag charge in England will work.

Some decisions about how the charge will work have already been made, such as the size of the charge (5p) and what it applies to (single-use plastic bags).  We would like you to focus your responses on the areas where we are still considering the evidence.

Give Us Your Views

Online Survey

Related Documents

Share This Consultation

Plastic Bags Destroys Our Environment

 

#business, #electric-charge, #england, #european-commission, #european-union, #packaging, #plastic, #plastic-bag, #plastic-bags, #scotland, #shopping-bag

#Public Information: For the Elderly About Cold-Weather Payments During this Winter

New figures show that the government has spent over £706 million since 2010 with 28 million Cold Weather Payments during the winter.

WinterAs the first icy blasts of cold weather set in, new figures reveal that the government has spent over £706 million since 2010 with 28 million Cold Weather Payments helping those most in need keep warm during the depths of winter.

Payments are made automatically to those who qualify when temperatures are forecast to plummet, including poorer pensioners, disabled adults and children, and families with children under 5 who receive an income-related benefit.

Cold Weather Payments are made for each 7-day period of very cold weather – if temperatures are recorded as, or forecast to be, zero degrees celsius or below over 7 consecutive days.

Department for Work and Pensions Minister Steve Webb said:

We are absolutely committed to helping the poorest pensioners and those most susceptible to the cold. We permanently increased Cold Weather Payments to £25 a week to help them heat their homes when it’s really cold, and have paid out over £706m since 2010 on this support.

People who get Pension Credit are automatically paid Cold Weather Payments, and in the cold winter days ahead it’s even more important that older people check if they are entitled so they don’t miss out on Cold Weather Payments. If anyone thinks a family member, a friend or neighbour might be entitled to Pension Credit, I’d encourage them to ask them to get in touch and find out by calling – 0800 99 1234.

More information

Statistics on Cold Weather Payments since 2010, based on Social Fund Annual Reports, are below.

Scotland Wales England Great Britain
2010/11 Number of payments 3,757,900 754,800 12,719,500 17,232,200
Expenditure (£) £93,947,500 £18,870,000 £317,991,425 £430,808,925
Number of recipients 776,300 182,100 3,110,900 4,069,300
2011/12 Number of payments 72,500 124,100 4,970,300 5,166,900
Expenditure (£) £1,812,500 £3,102,500 £124,257,500 £129,172,500
Number of recipients 49,600 62,400 3,057,400 3,169,400
2012/13 Number of payments 306,600 253,100 5,285,300 5,845,000
Expenditure (£) £7,665,000 £6,327,500 £132,132,500 £146,125,000
Number of recipients 133,600 75,700 3,081,500 3,290,800
£ Totals £103,425,000 £28,300,000 £574,381,425 £706,106,425

Over this period 28,244,100 million payments were made.

The figures for Wales and Scotland only include those from weather stations which cover areas entirely in each of Wales and Scotland ; weather station areas which straddle the Wales/England or Scotland/England borders are included in the figures for England, so it is possible they include some under-reporting in Wales and Scotland border regions, and consequent over-reporting for England.

The number of payments and number of individuals are rounded to the nearest 1,000, expenditure figures are rounded to the nearest £100,000.

Information on payments and expenditure against individual weather stations is published each year in the Social Fund Annual Report.

Over 1 million pensioners may be entitled to Pension Credit worth up to £2.8bn (2009/10) who are not claiming it. People can claim Pension Credit, as well as Housing Benefit, in one free phone call on – 0800 99 1234 without the need to sign a form.

Winter Fuel Payments also provide a valuable contribution to help older people with fuel bills in the colder winter months. Winter Fuel Payments are paid to more than 9 million households. The payment is £200 for households with someone over women’s State Pension age and £300 for those with someone aged 80 and over.

Around 2 million households receive assistance each year through the Warm Home Discount scheme; and well over 1 million of the poorest pensioners will receive a discount of £135 off their energy bill in winter 2013/14.

#cold-weather-payments, #department-for-work-and-pensions, #england, #housing-benefit, #pension-credit, #scotland, #social-fund-annual-report, #steve-webb, #wales, #weather, #weather-station

St Jude Storm Update Video Across UK in Next 24 Hours

Major Atlantic storm to impact UK

27 October 2013 – A major Atlantic storm is set to move across the UK over the next 24 hours, bringing some heavy rain and very strong winds to parts of England and Wales.

Coastline battered by storm

The storm is set to deepen rapidly just to the south west of the UK late today, before moving into western areas in the very early hours of Monday morning.

It’s then expected to track rapidly across the country, moving off into the North Sea by late morning – by which time the strongest winds will have passed.

Gusts of 60-70mph are expected in southern parts of England and Wales, with gusts of 80mph or more in places – particularly around southern and south western coasts.

Heavy rain will accompany the storm, with a chance of some localised surface water flooding.

The Met Office has issued Severe Weather Warnings for potential disruption from both the strong winds and the rainfall.

Most likely tack Sunday issueMost likely tack Sunday issue Storm timesStorm times

Martin Young, Chief Forecaster at the Met Office, said: “While this is a major storm for the UK, we don’t currently expect winds to be as strong as those seen in the ‘Great Storm‘ of 1987 or the ‘Burns Day storm‘ of 1990.

“This weather system is typical of what we expect to see in winter but as it’s coming in during autumn – when trees are in leaf – and while the ground is fairly saturated, it does pose some risks. We could see some uprooted trees or other damage from the winds and there’s a chance of some surface water flooding from the rainfall – all of which could lead to some disruption.”

People are advised to take precautions ahead of the storm and that travel conditions may be difficult during tomorrow morning. Delaying journeys to avoid the worst of the winds should be considered.

The Met Office will continue to work with partners across the UK to help minimise disruption.

A spokesman for the  Environment Agency said: “Environment Agency teams are out working to minimise river flood risk, clearing debris from streams and unblocking culverts. We will continue to closely monitor the situation ready to issue flood warnings if needed. We are supporting local authorities who will respond to any reports of surface water flooding.”

“Seafronts, quaysides, jetties should be avoided due to the risk of overtopping by waves and wind blown shingle. People are advised to sign up to receive free flood warnings from the Environment Agency website, check weather reports on the Met Office website and be prepared to change travel plans.”

Contact information

Met Office Press Office: +44 (0)1392 886655

E-mail: Press Office

Met Office Customer Centre: 0870 900 0100

If you’re outside the UK: +44 1392 885680

 

#aceweathernews, #burns-day-storm, #england, #environment-agency, #flood, #great-storm-of-1987, #met-office, #north-sea, #the-met-office, #uk, #wales

The Robben Island Declaration Timeline of History

In support of Occupied Palestine l thought l would provide a post with a link below ,out-lining their plight and request for freedom of 
Palestinian people have struggled for decades for justice and the realisation of their inalienable rights. These rights have been repeatedly reaffirmed by countless United Nations resolutions. Universal values, international legality and human rights cannot stop at borders, nor admit double standards, and must be applied in Palestine. This is the way forward to a just and lasting peace in the region, for the benefit of all its people’s. 
Occupied PalestinePlease read more and add your support by re-blogging their great article at: http://occupiedpalestine.wordpress.com/2013/10/27/the-robben-island-declaration-for-the-freedom-of-marwan-barghouthi-and-all-palestinian-prisoners-by-mrn1sa/
Timeline of Events:  
1421
Chinese fleet rounds the Cape of Good Hope and most likely sets food on the Island. In 1421, Chinese Emperor Zhu Di dispatched a huge armada of ships to sail around the world. The armada split into four fleets under the overall command of Admiral Zheng He. In August of 1421, the fleet rounded the Cape of Good Hope and relatively accurately mapped the continent for the first time. While we have no evidence of the crews setting foot on either Robben Island or the mainland, it is presumed that they would have done so.
1488
Portuguese discover the Island. Some 67 years later the Portuguese were the first Europeans to round the Cape. The skipper of the 2nd Ship of the Portuguese explorer Bartholomew Dias was probably the first European to set foot on Robben Island to remove meat and eggs.
1496
Portuguese set up a base in cave which they name ‘Portugal Cave’. In 1496, the Portuguese landed again on Robben Island and set up base in a cave which they called Portugal Cave. The present day harbour was built next to the cave which was to become the whaler Murray’s abode at Murray’s Bay. The cave no longer exists.
1501
Antonio de Saldanha and his men kill animals on the Island. Antonio de Saldanha retreated to Robben Island after a skirmish with the Khoe on the mainland, where he was wounded. On Robben Island, de Saldanha and his men set about killing as many penguins, seals and tortoises as they could. It is because of the many seals that were on the Island that the Dutch were later to name the island Robben, the Dutch word for seal.
1591
Sheep are introduced to the Island. Sir James Lancaster & Admiral Raymond were the first to introduce sheep to Robben Island, so that they would multiply and provide for future visitors. This was an important recognition of the strategic importance of the island to maritime traffic and a form of international cooperation. This practice of leaving livestock was continued in 1608 by the Dutch Admiral Cornelius Maaklof.
1611
Island is used as a mail station. Through records it is clear that by the time John Saris was retrieving mail from a rock on Robben Island, the practice of using the island as a mail-station was a common maritime practice. Robben Island was a post office of sorts, and played an important role in international communications.
1614
Chief Xhore chases British convicts to Robben Island. After being lured aboard the British ship the Hector in 1613, Chief Xhore and a companion were kidnapped and taken to England. Xhore’s companion later died en route. Sir Thomas Smythe of the British East India Company had designs for colonising the Cape of Good Hope, by sending out 100 convicts annually. Xhore was to be trained as an interpreter and facilitator of this plan, but Xhore hated his time in England and constantly demanded to be returned home. A year later, he was returned to Table Bay.
Xhore had learnt much about the British, and this knowledge ultimately lead to his effective resistance against Sir Thomas Smythe, who had tried to settle the Cape with convicts. Xhore chased the settlers off to Robben Island, but later in 1625, Xhore was killed by the Dutch. Xhore’s sons participated in the first Khoe-Dutch war in 1658, and among other marks made on history, Xhore will be remembered as the first black South African to go to England.
Convicted prisoners, sent to the Cape by Sir Thomas Smythe, escape to Robben Island.
Under the patronage of King James I of England, Walter Peyton was sent to the Cape with nineteen convicted prisoners from Newgate Prison by Sir Thomas Smythe of the British East India Company. The aim of this was to establish a Penal Colony and supply station.
An ex-officer and convicted highwayman by the name of Crosse was left behind as a leader of 10 convicts set ashore with guns, ammunition and supplies. The convicts soon got into conflict with the Khoe, lead by Chief Xhore. Having received more supplies and a longboat from the passing ship of Edward Dodsworth, Crosse fled from the mainland to Robben Island with 8 men and one boy.
1616
Nine months after having been left at the Cape, the British ship ‘New Years Gift’ collected 3 survivors off Robben Island. Ironically it was Chief Xhore who told the British visitors about the men then stranded on Robben Island. Crosse saw the ships at anchor and was washed out to sea and drowned during trying to reach the ships with a raft made from the wrecked long-boat.
1617
Three more convicts are placed on Robben Island. Under orders, English Captain Benjamin Joseph once more deposited 3 convicts on Robben Island in 1617, but a few days later a fifth ship in the fleet, picked them up again for unknown reasons.
1620
Robben Island, along with Table Bay, is claimed by the British. Table Bay and Robben Island were formally claimed by the British as crown possessions of King James I of England. Thereafter, the English practiced a very casual approach to the possession, and the Cape remained a hospitable sojourn for all international maritime traffic.
1632
Chief Autshumato is trained and taken to Robben Island with other Peninsula Khoe.
In a similar move to the 1613 events surrounding Chief Xhore, the English took Chief Autshumato to Bantam in Java for a year (probably 1631) where he was taught the essentials of the English language. In 1632, in an act of assisted migration, Autshumato and 20 other Peninsula Khoe were then taken to Robben Island by the English to act their as postal and maritime monitoring agents.
In the same year, Autshumato convinced the Dutch to bring over 30 more Peninsula Khoe to Robben Island. Thus it came to be that Autshumato acted as an agent for both the Dutch and the English. Autshumato was able to communicate in English, Dutch, French and Portuguese, and became an astute diplomat, yet official history portrays him as an ignorant beachcomber.
Autshumato is also recorded as saying to visiting French ship in 1632 that he was “Au service de messejieurs Holandois et de messejieurs les Anglois.” [In the service of the Dutch men and English men]
1636
Ringleader of a mutiny attempt banished to Robben Island
The former Governor of Batavia, Hendrik Bouwer, arrived in Table Bay in 1636 and ruled on a mutiny attempt which happened on one of the ships in the Dutch fleet. The ringleader was keelhauled, banished and abandoned on Robben Island.
1638
Khoe leave Robben Island. By 1638, due to the depletion of food (penguins, seals, cormorants and eggs) on the island, the Khoe moved back to the mainland.
1639
Khoe re-introduced to Island
The Europeans had grown use to the safe haven and services offered on Robben Island, so in 1639 Johan Albrecht von Mandelslo deposited fifteen Goringhaicona Khoe on Robben Island, 4 men, 8 women and 3 children, to continue to offer a service.
1652
Jan van Riebeeck and Captain Sijmon Turver land on Robben Island
With a permanent Dutch settlement established on the mainland, van Riebeeck attempted to land on Robben Island in July 1652 and almost got killed in the rough seas and south-easterly squall. On 14 September, he successfully landed on the island with Captain Sijmon Turver, exactly where today’s harbour stands. Soon after this, regular parties were sent out to collect penguins, eggs and seals.
1654
Robben Island used as a food station. At this time, The Cape mainland settlement was still insecure and inhospitable, and Robben Island was used as an emergency ‘pantry’ for the Cape Town VOC garrison. The garrison at this stage was largely comprised of Javanese Mardijkers. A vegetable garden was established and flocks of sheep introduced.
An overseer of the island was appointed by van Riebeeck, Corporal Robbeljaert who was put in charge of a few shepherds who were also sent to the Island. Rabbits and dassies were also introduced, and in June 1655 van Riebeeck also organised pig breeding on Robben Island. Several more men were then sent to the island to engage in caring for the animals and gardens.
1657
Lighthouse erected and the first prisoners introduced
A small Platform was erected on the highest point on Robben Island, upon which a fire was kept burning at night, when ships of the DEIC could be seen off the port. This was also the first year that an official group of prisoners was sent to the island, even although Robben Island had not yet been established as a convict workstation.
1660
The first recorded ship wreck is that of the Schapejacht in August 1660.
1662
Robben Island becomes a formal prison
Jan van Riebeeck concluded his time as Commander at the Cape in 1662. He was succeeded by Zacharias Wagenaar, who was attributed as the man who promoted Robben Island as a formal organised prison where prisoners could be put to hard labour quarrying for blue stone and lime.
1673
Convicts escape the prison on Robben Island
Five Khoe convicts achieved what was thought to be impossible. They managed to steal a rudderless boat and successfully made it back to the mainland.
1675
Two slaves sentenced to life imprisonment on Robben Island
Two slaves were sentenced for stealing food (vegetables) and had their ears cut off. They were also sentenced to life imprisonment on Robben Island where they were kept in chains.
1682
Exiles and other captives kept in slavery
An Englishman scholar, David Tappen, captured by the Dutch and forced to serve on the Dutch ships, spent time on Robben Island and wrote the following:
“On Robben Island are set the rebellious rulers brought from the East Indies, where they must end their lives in very bad conditions, since many of them who are now at the Cape must now work like slaves for their living, and often get more kicks than ha’pence for their hard tasks such as carrying wood and stones, burning lime etc. To this Robben Island come not only the rebellious East India rulers and other black folk, but also rebellious Dutch who are kept in slavery there for some years.”
1686
Slaves prisoners on Robben Island. Prisoner lists of 1686 show numerous slave names as prisoners on Robben Island, names such as Jacob van Macassar and Arrie van Bengal. Many Chinese slave/convicts were also sent to Robben Island.
1690
Successful escape from Robben Island by swimming to the mainland. In 1690, a convict by the name of Jan Rykman successfully escaped Robben Island by swimming to the mainland.
1693
Falsely accused sent to Robben Island. Dorha, a successful Chainouqua trader, (loyal to the Dutch) and his brother-in-law (of the Hessequa) are banished to Robben Island by Simon van der Stel and the Council of Policy, on trumped-up charges (latter repealed by the DEIC) to rob Dorha of his amassed cattle and curtail his successful trading system.
Dorha, as a successful trader in the inland areas, was a threat to the corrupt company officials who were dominating the trading processes. Dorha was a victim of a volte-face plot, which saw the company officials ally themselves to his enemy Koopman, leader of the Soeswa. In 1695, Dorha was exonerated and released from banishment on Robben Island but never regained his former prestige and was murdered by Koopman in 1701.
1694
Shipwreck on Robben Island
The yacht Dageraad from Goude Bay ran ashore on the Western side of the island. Sixteen of the crew were drowned.
1716
Sheikh Noorul Mubeen was exiled from the Indonesian Archipelago and banished to Robben Island, but escaped by unknown means. Legend has it that he swam to the mainland where he was found by slave fishermen and hidden on the mountainside. A Karamat shrine in Oudekraal marks his burial-place.
1743
The Prince of Madura was banished to Robben Island with 7 of his followers, after being captured by the Dutch in the Straits of Madura. He died on Robben Island in 1754 and his body was returned to Batavia after a petition by his son.
1744
Tuan Matarah Sayed Abduraghman Motura (Matirim) was exiled from the Indonesian Archipelago (probably Sumatra) and banished to Robben Island where he died. A Karamat shrine on Robben Island marks his burial place and is visited by pilgrims.
1780
A Prince of Tadore in the Tiranate Islands, Tuan Guru, who traced his ancestry to the Sultanate of Morocco, together with Callie Abdul Rauf, Noro Imam and Barodien were said to have conspired with the English against the Dutch.
They were captured by the Dutch and brought to the Cape as state prisoners and incarcerated on Robben Island. Tuan Guru was later released to the mainland in 1792, and Barodien and Rauf died on Robben Island. Taun Guru died in 1807 and a Karamat Shrine marks the place of his burial on Signal Hill.
1786
Tuan Nuruman arrived in Cape Town as a slave and was housed in the Slave Lodge. In 1786, he was found guilty of assisting a group of fellow slaves in an escape bid and sent to Robben Island. Years later, when released from the Island he settled as a freed slave and officiated as an Imam. He died in 1810 and a Karamat Shrine marks his grave on Signal Hill.
1806
Murray installed himself as a Whaler on the island, next to the present-day harbour, and settled in Portugal Cave with his wife and children. Since then the Bay was called Murray’s Bay.
1846
The first lepers were moved (from Hemel en Aarde, near Hermanus) to Robben Island and housed in existing buildings.
1858
Cemetery below Minto’s Hill is established, and acts as a burial ground for staff of the island during the Leprosy Settlement and Convict Station until 1923.
1864
Robben Island Lighthouse was built on Minto Hill. In 1938, a self-contained generating plant was installed to produce electric lighting of 464 000 candle-power. A fog-horn was installed in 1925.
1873
Langalibalele, Chief of the AmaHlubi, and his people worked in Kimberley and in the process acquired arms. Fearing an uprising, the Hlubi were ordered to surrender their arms by the British. They refused and fled towards Basutholand for refuge but were waylaid by troops at the top of the Drakensberg Pass. Langalibalele was brought back in chains and tried for treason and rebellion. He was sentenced to life imprisonment on Robben Island. The Cape Town township Langa is named after him.
1880
A small restaurant and refreshment station is opened. The Island population was then 1070 of whom 800 were male.
1882
A gardening campaign was started by Dr. Impey and Lady Loch, and was promoted by the famous brewer Mr. Ohlsson who paid for a plantation to be laid out on the western shore at his expense. Much of this was destroyed in the Second World War for security reasons.
Over 70 000 trees were planted at this time including thorn trees, tamarisks, firs, pines, wattles, manatoka, cypresses, acasia, salinga and belhambra. The gardening campaign was at its strongest from 1882-1912.
During this time, Franz Jacobs lead a protest and wrote to petition the Queen to improve the terrible Leper conditions on Robben Island.
1886
Chaplain and Dr. Ross oppose female lepers being brought to the Island because of intercourse between male and female lepers.
The postmaster brings out the first Robben Island Newspaper, the Robben Island Times. It cost two pounds a year to produce.
1887
Female leper is block built to the north of Murray Harbour.
1890
New buildings are built for male lepers, in the area that stretches from village to the leper cemetery south of Murray Bay.
1892
Tramway line is built. A 18inch gauge tramway line was laid from the boathouse to the general stores and ran to all of the key off-loading points of the island. Trolleys were drawn by mules.
1893
A Library is opened with 1548 volumes. A magistrate’s court was also started and the librarian doubled as resident magistrate, Mr L Powys-Jones. The Island school ceased to be a mission school and became a government school.
1894
Guest house is built for the resident chaplain of the Dutch Reformed Church
The post of chaplain became necessary with the increase in leprosy patients. 
1895
Residence built for the Commissioner of the Island. The Commissioner was brought in as an administrator when the surgeon-superintendent of the hospital had difficulties subduing violence and dissatisfaction among leprosy patients about their forced residence on the Island. The building would later become a mess hall for officers in WW2.
The Church of the Good Shepherd is consecrated in 1895. This was a Leper Church for men designed by Sir Herbert Baker. A carved figure of the Good Shepherd was brought from Oberammergau (famous for religious plays). A Leper church for women was called the Church of Saint Mary the Virgin. A Catholic Chapel and a Dutch Reformed church was also established.
1896
Faure Jetty completed. This jetty acted as a replacement jetty as the one below an old Convict station was destroyed by storms.153 trips were made in 1896 by the steam ferries Tiger, Magnet and Pieter Faure.
1910
Leper Children and Anglican Nuns move to the Island. The Anglican sisterhood took over the children’s leper home, catering for 26 children, into their care. They were recalled to England in 1926 and the children returned to the compounds.
1913
After years of argument, the government agreed to remove the mental patients from the island so that they may be integrated into more humane institutions of care on the mainland.
1930
Lepers removed from Robben Island
1931
All leper buildings, with the exception of the Church of the Good Shepherd, are burned and demolished.
1939
Island acts as Military base. The Department of Defence established fortress Robben Island to guard Table Bay. Murray Harbour, an airstrip and gun batteries were built. A maze of tunnels and bunkers were carved into the island. It was a military fortress in every aspect and home to thousands of servicemen and women.
The vast majority had no idea of Robben Island’s painful past and little consciousness of the pain that would be coming, yet these men and women had been mobilised to fight fascism and Nazism in Europe.
1950’s
Robben Island is used as a naval base. Robben Island was taken over by the SA Navy as SAS Robben Island with a population of 1200 – 1500.
1959
Declaration of Robben Island as an Apartheid era Prison. The National Party Minister of Justice declared that the island would once more serve as a prison. As far as possible, all military installations were to be dismantled and relocated to the mainland. Access to the island was to be restricted and suitable prison structures constructed.
1961 – 1991
Maximum security prison for political prisoners.
1961 – 1996
Medium security prison for criminal prisoners. The first political prisoners began to arrive in 1961. These early prisoners had to participate in the completion of Robben Island’s maximum security prison structures. Along with ANC and PAC prisoners, there were members of many other organisations including the SA Congress of Trades Unions, the SA Communist Party, South West African Peoples Organisation, National Liberation Front, the Non-European Unity movement, the Liberal Party, AZAPO, the APDU, BCM, UDF and others.
After the Rivonia trial in 1964, Nelson Mandela, Walter Sisulu, Govan Mbeki and other senior ANC leaders were sentenced to life imprisonment on Robben Island. Over the next three decades, thousands of political cadres of all persuasions and all ranks were brought by ferry to be imprisoned on the island. PAC leader, Robert Sobukwe, was initially sentenced to three years imprisonment; because the government were not prepared to release him, they passed a special law in parliament which allowed them to keep Sobukwe in prison without charges, indefinitely. It was called the Sobukwe clause.
After the unbanning of political organisations and the release of Nelson Mandela by FW de Klerk in 1990, a slow process of releasing all political prisoners unfolded.
1962
January, Nelson Mandela leaves South Africa for military training.
March, Mandela receives training from the Algerian National Liberation Front at bases of the latter across the border in Morocco.
1991
All political prisoners had been released from Robben Island.
1996
The last of the Common Law Prisoners leave the island
1997
1 January, The Robben Island Museum was officially opened.
1999
Robben Island became a World Heritage site. The museum and heritage site is visited by thousands of tourists each year.

References

 

#acejusticenews, #aceworldnews, #humanrights, #cape-of-good-hope, #england, #james-lancaster, #palestine, #palestinian-territories, #robben-island, #south-africa, #thomas-smythe

Severe Storm Heading for the UK Worst Since 1987 According to Met Office

Severe storm heading for the UK – Video

26 October 2013 – The Met Office is a warning of the risk of a significant storm bringing exceptionally strong winds to parts of England and Wales on Sunday night into Monday morning.

Lighthouse and stormy seas

Currently forecasts suggest a low pressure system will rapidly deepen just to the south-west of the UK on later on Sunday, before moving across the country to be out over the North Sea by the afternoon on Monday.

This is expected to bring gusts of 60 – 80 mph widely across the southern half of the UK, with gusts of more than 80 mph possible in places – especially on exposed coasts.

Any major storm which occurs in early autumn has the potential to cause widespread severe disruption through falling trees, structural damage, transport disruption or power cuts and possibly flooding.

Frank Saunders, Chief Forecaster at the Met Office, said: “We are confident that a severe storm will affect Britain on Sunday night and Monday. We are now looking at refining the details about which areas will see the strongest winds and the heaviest rain.

“This is a developing situation and we’d advise people to stay up to date with our forecasts and warnings over the weekend, and be prepared to change their plans if necessary. We’ll continue to work closely with authorities and emergency services to ensure they are aware of the expected conditions.”

Alternative tracks - Monday 28 October 2013Alternative tracks – Monday 28 October 2013 Most likely track - Monday 28 October 2013Most likely track – Monday 28 October 2013

The storm is also expected to feature heavy rain for some parts of the country, which also has the potential to cause some localised impacts.

An Environment Agency spokesperson said: “Environment Agency teams are out working to minimise river flood risk, clearing debris from streams and unblocking culverts. We will continue to closely monitor the situation ready to issue flood warnings if needed. We are supporting local authorities who will respond to any reports of surface water flooding.”

“Seafronts, quaysides, jetties should be avoided due to the risk of over-topping by waves and wind-blown shingle. People are advised to sign up to receive free flood warnings from the Environment Agency website, check weather reports on the Met Office website and be prepared to change travel plans.”

Martin Hobbs the head of Asset Resilience at the Highways Agency: “We are working closely with the Met Office to monitor conditions ahead of the weather being forecast over the weekend.  Drivers, especially those considering a trip with a caravan this weekend, are encouraged to think carefully before setting off as driving conditions are expected to be difficult on Sunday evening and Monday. If you do have to make a journey by road, be prepared, plan your jour­ney in advance and check the lat­est weather conditions along your route.

“Be aware of sudden gusts of wind, and give high-sided vehicles, caravans, motorbikes and bicycles plenty of space. In the event of persistent high winds we may need to close certain bridges to traffic for a period, so please be alert for warnings of closures and follow sign-posted diversion routes.”

You can stay up to date with all the latest information in our forecasts and warnings online, on our apps for iPhone, Android, Windows, Kindle, as well as our partners on TV and Radio.

#aceweathernews, #england, #environment-agency, #flood-warnings, #frank-saunders, #highways-agency, #iphone, #met-office, #monday, #sunday, #the-met-office, #uk

How to Create – Extend – Get Paid More – On a Contract By the Taxpayer – For Culling Animals!

After all the controversy surrounding the badger cull, these so-called vigilantes want to extend the killing of defenceless creatures to another three weeks! A great way for the UK taxpayer to pay a cull company or third party contractor, to continue under the guise of saying this in a statement:
Extract:Natural England is currently considering an application from the cull company for a short extension of two to three weeks so as to maximise the disease control benefits achieved in this first year. We expect Natural England to make a decision on the application to extend the application in the next few days. The advice of the Chief Veterinary Officer is that further increasing the number of badgers culled would improve those benefits even further and enable them to accrue earlier.
https://www.gov.uk/government/news/badger-cull-extension-application-in-somerset

#acegovernmentnews, #acenewsservices, #england, #natural

Manchester cave dwellers: Out of sight, out of mind – Comment – Voices – The Independent

Not virtual reality any more but real life!

Not virtual reality any more but real life!

When you read articles like this one you think you must be reading a story from the third world, maybe Bangladesh or similar! But NO this is about homeless men and women living close to Stockport, Greater Manchester, that’s right, here in the UK!

Yesterday l heard about Ipsos awards a 15% pay rise to people on salaries of £66,000 or more, as they cannot live on this amount!

Trying living on the streets of Greater Manchester for a while and see how that feels!

But of course we have a government and a Chancellor who says we are in in this together, well these two small comparisons, show that we are not and it is a lie! Of course well is it not this government that coined the word #austerity, well let them have their cake and eat it, and may it taste foul in their mouths, as the come to terms with what other people suffer!

Oh l know some that will read this post and this excellent article and say we cannot change these people they are oblivious to other peoples pain, but l say this that one man started a revolution and his name was Jesus and as the story goes he will return!

Or maybe just maybe he is watching all this and already preparing for his “Second Coming” when these people will be judged that judged others wanting!

Manchester cave dwellers: Out of sight, out of mind – Comment – Voices – The Independent.

The cost of just hiring a deputy to assist the GM’s Police Chief during these times of #austerity

#justice4people, #secondcoming, #bangladesh, #england, #greater-manchester, #greater-manchester-police, #homeless, #ipsos, #jesus, #manchester, #stockport, #unjust

Young People With Neurological Conditions Condemned To Live In Care Homes

neurology-newswire-update

neurology-newswire-update (Photo credit: Wiley Asia Blog)

A report from Sue Ryder has claimed that thousands of young people suffering from neurological conditions, such as Parkinson’s and multiple sclerosis, are being condemned to live in old people’s homes without specialist care. The charity found that just 5% of local authorities in England were aware of how many people with neurological conditions they provide care for, while only 6% categorise specific neurological conditions, even though each one has different care requirements.

Another result of cut-backs and saving money takes hold in our so-called healthcare policy!

#england, #health, #multiple-sclerosis, #neurological-disorder, #neurology, #parkinsons-disease, #sue-ryder, #youth

COLD WEATHER PLAN LAUNCHED BY MET OFFICE

English: Cold weather front

English: Cold weather front (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Dear Readers and Followers,

Better to be safe than sorry, so thought this would be useful information for you and your loved ones. So can you share and care to as many people as possible so they can be safe this Winter?

Thanks Ian  

The Met Office, Department of Health, and Health Protection Agency have launched the  Cold Weather plan for England 2012 which aims to prepare for, alert people to and prevent the major avoidable effects on health during periods of severe cold in England.

The Cold Weather Plan, which has run successfully since 2011, has been developed by the Department of HealthMet Office and Health Protection Agency, and supported by AgeUK. The purpose of the Cold Weather Plan is to help raise awareness of the dangers of cold weather on health with both the public and professionals alike. It spells out what preparations both individuals and organisations could make to reduce health risks and includes specific measures to protect at-risk groups.

The Cold Weather Plan will be supported again this year by the Met Office Cold Weather Alert Service, which notifies frontline staff across the health, social care, Community and Voluntary sectors, and AgeUK, as well as the general public across England, when cold weather could impact on people’s’ health.

Although winter weather and snow can be fun, they are also associated with an increase in illnesses and injuries. Severe cold weather can be particularly dangerous for vulnerable groups such as older people and those with serious illnesses.

Met Office figures show that the winter of 2010/11 saw the coldest December in 100 years. Some areas saw temperatures fall as low as -10 and -20 °C overnight. Winter 2011/12 was milder but there were several cold snaps, notably at the start of February 2012.

The Met Office Cold Weather Alert Service runs from 1 November 2012 to 31 March 2013 and has five alert levels that depend on the severity of conditions. Together, the plan and alerts aim to prepare, alert and prevent the effects of winter weather on people’s health by helping keep people well.

Further details of how to prepare and reduce the effects of extreme weather conditions on your health can be found on THEIR website LINK BELOW!

Cold Weather Plan Launched Today just click link and a new page will open and take you to the sight information.

Link to information above: You can sign up as l have done for email alerts to your area of the UK at MET OFFICE ALERTS  

Be safe and sound this winter.

Regards, Editor {Ace News Group}

#department-of-health, #england, #health-protection-agency, #london, #met-office, #scotland, #snow, #weather

Adoption – How Safe Are Children – Under New Rules

Adoption by Choice, Erie PA

Adoption by Choice, Erie PA (Photo credit: hbimedialibrary)

Adoption

Adoption (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The Office of National Statistics has reported that more children are being adopted between the ages of one and four. The proportion rose to 62% last year, up from 58% of all children adopted in 2010. Total adoptions in England and Wales increased by 6% to 4,734. The number of adoptions of children under the age of one fell from 95 to 76. The figures follow David Cameron’s announcement, last month, to overhaul adoption law. He wants children to move in with potential families before legal procedures are finalised.

As l have written before my real worry about speeding up any procedure, when the legalities are not fully in place, can lead to problems in the future.

The mere fact that we have more children awaiting adoption, should not be the reason to be cavalier about their lives! We must protect them at against changes,that could lead them one day to be vulnerable! This maybe a way for this government to save money on ” legal aid” but it should not be the most important reason for changing legislation!

One of the far-reaching effects of such a changes due to that ” before legal procedures are finalised ” it will become a costly mistake in the future when the child is old enough to make decisions for themselves.In that ” legalities of procedural rights” may then become a litigation issue and further costly legal procedures maybe required! This then maybe the plan of any government as to eventually make changes to ” Legal Aid ” as to eventually “water it down” or eradicate its use! Though it will always provide the ” Legal Eagles” with work, even though it will be private work and costly to the client! This of course does not even consider trauma caused to both the client and their well-being! 

So l say NO! to Cameron’s or any government that proposes such changes, whereby they put any child into an environment before ” all legalities of procedure” have been FULLY completed and the i’s have been dotted and the t’s crossed!                           

#adoption, #child, #david-cameron, #england, #england-and-wales, #law, #legal-eagles, #office-for-national-statistics